Acetone is a representative compound of aliphatic ketones and has a typical reaction of ketones. For example: with sodium bisulfite to form colorless crystalline adducts. Reacts with hydrogen cyanide to generate acetone cyanohydrin. Under the action of the reducing agent, isopropanol and pinacolone are produced. Acetone is relatively stable to oxidants. Will not be oxidized by nitric acid at room temperature. When acid potassium permanganate strong oxidant is used as oxidant, acetic acid, carbon dioxide and water are generated. Bimolecular condensation occurs in the presence of a base to generate diacetone alcohol.
2mol of acetone in the presence of various acid catalysts (hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride or sulfuric acid) to generate isopropylidene acetone, and then add 1mol of acetone to generate phorone (diisopropylidene acetone). Under the action of concentrated sulfuric acid, 3mol of acetone will remove 3mol of water to generate 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. In lime. In the presence of sodium alkoxide or sodium amide, it condenses to form isophorone (3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one).
In the presence of acid or base, condensation reaction occurs with aldehydes or ketones to produce ketone alcohols, unsaturated ketones and resinous substances. Condensed with phenol under acidic conditions to form bisphenol-A. The α-hydrogen atom of acetone is easily replaced by halogen to generate α-haloacetone. It reacts with sodium hypohalite or halogen alkali solution to generate haloform. The addition of acetone and Grignard reagent occurs, and the addition product is hydrolyzed to obtain tertiary alcohol. Acetone and ammonia and its derivatives such as hydroxylamine, hydrazine, phenylhydrazine, etc. can also undergo condensation reactions. In addition, acetone is cracked at 500~1000℃ to produce ketene. Pass through the silicon-aluminum catalyst at 170~260℃ to produce isobutylene and acetaldehyde; at 300~350℃, produce isobutylene and acetic acid. It cannot be oxidized by weak oxidizing agents such as silver ammonia solution and newly made copper hydroxide, but it can catalyze hydrogenation to produce alcohol.